The bai continues to attract high numbers of elephants, mostly adult females and their young with only a few sizeable bulls. A few days ago we encountered a big bull in the river below camp upon our return after the daily observations. He calmly backed off and awaited our passage. I could clearly see that both ears were distinctly marked, the right ear with a big circular notch and the left ear with a noticeable hole. He was stocky in stature and with massive tusks which pointed straight with little curve. Small round ears whose lobes didn’t reach beyond his jaw. I kept this mental picture in my head not knowing if I had seen him before. Returning home I composed a line drawing and then made a search for a matching identity card. There he was, “Miura,” named by some Spanish tourists who told me that his name signified a race of bulls of the bovine type.
Miura was first identified in August 2007 when he was seen in musth and observed for a series of days between the 7 – 14th of August in the clearing. He wasn’t successful at finding a female but spent most of those days in the clearing. Since 2007 he hasn’t been observed so we wonder where he has been spending his time.
Miura, April 2011
Yesterday he entered the bai from the direction of the river where we had identified him. He spent a few hours in the bai and then headed back to the river where we again encountered him and two other younger bulls. They all walked up river in front of us clearing the way for us to return home.
Miura, August 2007
There have been reports of Sudanese poachers north of the area of the Dzanga Clearing. Reports coming in are mostly second and third hand and resemble the information that we received during the dry season in 2010 when there is movement of different groups in the northern part of the Central African Republic. In years past the dry season was the time when banditry escalated on the roads, especially in the northern savannah but for two consecutive years there have been additional reports of Sudanese caravans which consist of horsemen and camels making there way south where there are still healthy populations of elephant.
The last report was a couple of days ago when there was a purported confrontation between the Sudanese and Central African military. Deaths were reported but getting credible information is difficult especially specific details about the exact location of these groups.
Besides this alarming situation and the possible threat to this area which is one of the last strongholds of elephants in the Central African Republic our daily observations have shown elevated numbers of elephants and other species of forest mammals. For the past couple of days there have been well over 100 elephants a day with the appearance of elephant individuals we haven’t seen in months. Family group members have been coming together in the clearing in happy reunions with lots of vocalizations and tactile encounters.
The other news is that bongo have been consistently been in the clearing for the last two weeks with groups varying from 18 to well over 40 individuals. Yesterday there were four adult males in the group which confirms that this must be a mating season. During the last two years we have been observing elevated numbers of bongo in the clearing and they stay in the area with weeks of their presence in the bai.
The rains are starting and there is a different atmosphere at the Dzanga Clearing. Humidity is high with an occasional rainstorm. This has resulted in fewer large males observed in the clearing. However during the last ten days we have observed three musth males, two of which we have seen in musth in previous years. Freddy is the largest male presently in musth. He was first identified in 1991 and observed four times during nineteen years of the Dzanga Study. The last time he had been observed in musth was in 2007 so we were encouraged to see him again after a four year gap. During the last ten days he has been observed five times and yesterday during the midafternoon he appeared out of the forest following Backwards, a female we have know for twenty one years. Backwards, so named because of her tusks which turn backwards was her daughter, Kadi, on of our favorite calves. Kadi is her last calf and was born in March of 2004.
Backwards was rebuffing Freddy’s courtship and kept circulating in the clearing but Freddy followed her. At one point Backwards entered the forest behind the observation platform followed by Freddy only to re enter the clearing. Freddy kept following her and displaced a young bull from the favorite mineral hole which was then available to Backwards and Kadi. They entered the hole and after a few minutes resumed their waltz with Freddy around the clearing. Yesterday we were hoping to see the courting couple again but there was no sign of them all afternoon.
Backwards and Kadi
Another male we observed in musth is Sharif whom we observed only once last week. He is a small, younger bull whom we have observed only once in musth in 2008. He was first identified in 1994 and we have never seen him successfully guard any females. He is low on the hierarchy but has many years ahead of him. A couple of years ago he appeared in the bai with a tumor like growth on his left flank behind his front leg. On a subsequent day we again observed him and he had rubbed the growth off and there was a open wound. This healed and there is now a small scar which is barely visible.
Sharif, April 2011
The last bull to be observed in musth is Shaf, a younger bull. He has only been observed twice in the clearing and was first identified in February of 2008 and observed a couple of times thereafter. This is the first time he has been observed in musth. He spent most of the afternoon following Malcolm, another sizeable bull. Shaf was clearly discouraging Malcolm’s presence from the bai in order to eliminate any mating competition if any available females appeared.
Malcolm and Shaf
The other news is that there is a female forest buffalo in the vicinity of camp. She has a wound on her left rear leg and is not part of the buffalo group observed at Dzanga. We encounter her in the river below camp and she poses no threat. As we approach her she runs away. She has also been visiting camp during the night because in the morning we find her tracks where she has circulated in camp. What may attract her is the grassy lawn we have planted to prevent soil erosion in camp.
Dry season as usual is the period of elevated activity in the clearing. The long dry season takes place during the months of December through March and this year it has been unusually busy. This year we have witnessed more matings and musth guards than in past years. We have also observed fights between musth bulls which have been rare in the past. When we have observed musth male encounters in the past, one of two things has happened, either there is a physical encounter that lasts less than a minute or one of the bulls flees realizing that he is outmatched.
In both of the fights we observed this dry season one male, Habib, was a participant. He is a well known make whom we first identified in Septermber of 1995 and didn’t see again until December 2004. Since then he has been a regular visitor to the bai during the long dry season, his musth period. Habib’s first fight this dry season was with Gibor, a well known male, who we observed guarding a female in the clearing in December. The fight lasted a full five minutes, long for fights we have observed, the two bulls being evenly matched. Eventually Gibor succumbed running as he was pursued by Habib.
Habib and Gibor Fight
Gibor Flees Habib
The reaction of elephants in the clearing was excitement and heightened tension. The level of vocalizations increased to a crescendo which included roars, rumbles and screams were made in reaction to the fight and in the excitement a group of elephants which included females and their young ran out of the clearing to the safety of the forest. Later they returned to the clearing after Habib and Gibor left for the surrounding forest. We witness a similar kind of frenzy during matings in the bai when elephants vocalize in a similar fashion.
Prolonged fights are rare in the clearing but their presence is evident. Musth males often are observed in the clearing with scarring and wounds of encounters with other males during their rut period.
We witnessed an incredible sight four days ago when a group of 46 bongo made an appearance in the bai. They stayed the entire afternoon and were still present when we left in the early evening. Two days later tourists observed the same group in the morning hours before they left for the forest. With the group were four adult male bongo, evidently it is the mating season !
Apologies for not blogging for almost a year and keeping the situation at Dzanga updated.
The work at Dzanga continues on a regular basis and we are happy to report that since last January there have been no poaching incidences in or near the clearing. However outside the protected areas we know that elephants and other wildlife are always under threat due to uncontrolled hunting in areas where there is little or no surveillance. The main problem in this part of the world is commercial logging which attract people into areas which were formerly uninhabited. With people come arms and poaching.
The best news was our confirmation of twins which we had first observed in August of 2009. On December 2 of this year while at the clearing in the afternoon we witnessed the entrance of the mother, Habiba and her twin calves which we estimated to be about 18 months old. They had not been observed since their first sighting in August of 2009. With the second sighting of this group we have now confirmed the first observation of twins in a forest elephant population. Below is a photo of the entire group which includes Habiba in the front with the twins and her sisiter Juvena in the rear with her calf. This group is not seen very often in the clearing but have very distinct ear markings making them unmistakable when they are observed in the clearing.
The twins, a female and male, are doing well and their tusks have just erupted. The entire group of Habiba and Juvena now numbers seven individuals and are seen once or twice in the clearing per year.
Habiba and twins, Juvena and calf
Habiba and the Twins
The other news is that the Dzanga Clearing will be featured in an article in the magazine “Vanity Fair,” as part of an extensive article on elephants covering not only elephants in the wild and from several sites in Africa and Asia but also will feature information on the ivory trade. The article is planned for the April issue.
At present the dry season is here so the normal movement of big bulls into the bai is now underway. Several bulls have been observed in musth including Gibor who is one of the December-January musth bulls. He was guarding a female named Gryta during some evening observations but became distracted by someone vocalizing in the neighboring forest. He wandered off in search of this individual and during his absence two other adult bulls mated with the estrous female. Gibor returned to the clearing after about forty minutes looking for his female and found here at the other clearing with the second bull who mated her. He cleared out and Gibor resumed his guard. The next day in the first daylight hours Gibor and Gryta were still in the clearing when the photo below was taken.
Dzanga in the early morning: Gibor (musth) & Gryta and her calf
Again apologies for the lack of blogs. Since the last post in late 2009 I visited Gabon with a film crew and experienced a much different environment for forest elephants. The Gabonese elephants appeared to be smaller in stature and a more cyclotis or forest form of elephants. Compared to the Dzanga elephants they were more uniform in morphology or shape. The highlight of the trip was watching several sizable bulls cross rivers by snorkling across. They would approach the river bank, plop themselves in the river and then snorkle across doing an elephant dog paddle. We anticipated their crossing and were able to witness them close by in a boat while filming. At one point all we could see was a portion of the trunk as the elephant swam effortlessly to the other side of the river. This was all beautifully captured in the BBC film “Rumble in the Jungle.”
Back at Dzanga there was another poaching incident at the beginning of February. As usual we heard the shot at 18:30 just after nightfall. There was some moon so the poachers were taking advantage of the ambient night light. The local guard patrol ran to my camp and we then used the HF radio to contact the park headquarters 12 kilometers away to call in reinforcements. The guard patrol then headed off to the clearing, a brave feat considering the high numbers of elephants between the camp and Dzanga. Thirty minutes later there was a lot of gun fire with reports of a high caliber rifle belonging to the poachers and AK 47s belonging to the guards. All I could think of were possible casualties.
The reinforcements arrived in record time, about 40 minutes after the radio call. Another group of guards arrived and also headed off to the clearing after I explained what had happened. They then headed off into the dark and again we heard gunshots, again an interchange. Then the first guard patrol returned to camp, they had run out of ammunition and said that as they were approaching the clearing they could hear the poachers chopping out the tusks of the elephant. We awaited the return of the second guard group who returned about an hour later. Despite the effort the tusks were efficiently chopped out by the poachers who fled into the darkness.
We are certain of the identity of the perps, a well organized group with a ringleader well known to all of us. He is Central African but has taken up residence down river in a town in Cameroon from where he is well protected and observed often.
The next day I went to the clearing to inspect the carcass and to see if I could identify the victim. As I walked through the forest my mind was racing about possible casualties, individuals I had observed during the week. A few of the bigger tuskers like Pom and Menelaus came to mind. I was anticipating the worst. Once we arrived the carcass was clearly in sight situated directly across from the observation platform planted in the favorite mineral hole this dry season. No other elephants were presence due to all the nocturnal commotion. We crossed to the far side of the bai to look at the dead elephant. The front of the face had been chopped out in order to quickly pull out the tusks. So with nothing of the face left there was nothing to identify. With all the time I have observed elephants many of them I can identify just by looking at their faces but no in this case. He was lying on his left side so only his right ear was visible and this we inspected for signs by which we could identify him but there were only two very small holes and this also didn’t lead to identification.
After barely two weeks there was nothing left of the carcass except the bones and crumpled skin. We saw little interaction between the elephants and their fallen brethern. The giant forest hogs fed on the carcass until there was nothing left. Now the bones are being scattered around with a visible part of the vertebrae being the farthest removed.
Poached Elephant Head
Poaching here is on the increase with at least six carcasses being reported during January In the Ndoki Dzanga National Park and the neighboring Nouabale-Ndoki National Park in Congo. The news from elsewhere isn’t any better with elephants under siege in many other sites in the Central African region.
Guards and Elephant Carcass
Apologies to everyone for the lack of news for the last months. Finding the time and the means to past recent happenings is not always easy. Accessibility to an internet connection is not always easy and sometimes is a matter of driving into the night to the nearby village when there are fewer people on line making it easier to post.
The bai continues to amaze and consume my life with the comings and goings of well known individuals.
Last week one of the trackers, Banda, told me he had come across an elephant placenta in an area adjacent to the path to the clearing where an elephant had given birth which by his estimations was probably the night before. In the afternoon when we went to the clearing together we the spot was easily identifiable. The elephants had literally flattened the area leaving little ground vegetation. My best guess was this was caused by the excitement of the elephants about the birth and this resulted in trampling the area as they closed in on the newborn and mother. The placenta was gone from where Banda had found it , probably eaten by elephants or other species such as giant forest hogs.
When we got to the clearing I looked the length of the clearing to see if there were any female elephants with newborns. In the southern part of the clearing there was a well known female, Theda with a tiny baby and when I looked closer with the spotting scope I detected a part of the umbilical cord still attached. Theda had been in the clearing on the previous day without a newborn so the spot in the forest was probably where she had given birth. The next couple of days Theda was still in the clearing and the calf appeared to be in good health.
Another well known female whom I call Miss L, also has a new calf. The L in her name being for Lonelyhearts because she was first identified alone and always has shown a bizarre interest in people especially ones that are on the ground. When she is observed in the clearing she will inevitably approach the observation platform to see if there is anyone there. On several occasions she has tried to steal objects. This was the case when a CNN reporter came to do a piece about 10 years ago and Miss L stole a boot. She headed off towards the southern end of the clearing dropping the boot after she had tried to chew on it. The boot was later recovered showing distinct molar prints.
Miss L was observed last week with a very new calf still very pink in color which is typical for very new babies. This is her second calf, her first calf disappeared shortly after birth probably because of Miss L’s poor mothering skills. She shows little interest in her calves who put a lot of energy into keeping up with her. Newborn number 2 howev
er is keeping up and suckling without too much reluctance.
Miss L other weird proclivity is her fascination with elephant carcasses. On two separate occasions she has been observed pulling on carcass limbs and moving the carcasses. I suspect she may have been orphaned as a young calf and perhaps is reenacting what happened to her earlier in life which might explain why she lacks mothering skills. Too many mysteries in elephants lives and I can only surmise why some of the individuals I observe exhibit abnormal behavior. Trauma surely plays a part of forming their character.
I’m away from Dzanga for a few days visiting the capital city of Bangui for a few errands. The trip is difficult, a long bumpy 500 kilometer stretch through bush with no ammenities. Most of the road is unpaved and with the rains and lack of maintenance the trip is an ordeal. This time I travelled to Bangui two days ago and will return tomorrow, a record trip since I usually spend at least five days in Bangui before the return to the bush.
Along the way there are a few stops to stretch and search for the basic food which some of the small towns offer. This time during one of the stops this child approached and was wearing this t-shirt which I explained to a group of children. On the t- shirt was a short poem extolling the virtues of the elephant in English. Its owner probably had bought it in the used clothing market. During this encounter I had a captive audience in a place where schools barely function and a foreigner speaking their language is somewhat of a novelty.
None of these local children had ever seen an elephant in the wild and when I asked about them they told me how elephants were dangerous. I explained that this wasn’t ususally true and how the Central African Republic once had thousands of elephants but because of poaching their numbers had been severely reduced. How sad I thought that these children would probably never see an elephant in the wild even though their country had both savannah and forest elephants within its borders. One question I always ask Central Africans who visit Dzanga Clearing is if they had ever seen elephants in the wild before visiting the clearing. For ninety nine percent of African visitors this was their first experience of seeing and observing the biggest land mammal.
Of all animals, elephants are the most prevalent in advertising where they appear not only on t shirts but detergent boxes, beer bottles and a variety of products. Sadly to say they will soon exist as flat images serving as an advertising logos rather than a fellow inhabitant of the planet.
Although twinning has been observed in elephant populations in Africa, we had never recorded this event at Dzanga. Throughout the years of the study we have recorded many births to known females but they have been single births. To date we have recorded more than 900 calves born to known females, a period of twenty years.
This all changed two weeks ago when just as we were packing up to leave after the daily observations when a female entered the clearing from the south. This entrance is a wide trail winding down a sandy hill. The female, Habiba, was accompanied by a very small calf which I estimated to be at least two months old. I was busy trying to identify the female with the spotting scope when the assistant Bounga pointed in the direction of Habiba and said that she had been accompanied by two calves. I then looked again through the scope, a distance of 400 meters and there were two calves of the same size and who looked alike. We waited five minutes to see if any other females were entering but Habiba was the only adult female in the vicinity of the calves. So we concluded that indeed the two calves were twins. We remained for another ten minutes before departing for camp and still no sign of another female.
Habiba is a female who is very distinct but not one of the regulars to frequent the clearing so verifying the twins may take time since we will await the next time she appears in the clearing to see if she again accompanied by the two calves. I was also able to determine that the twins were a female and a male.
Juvena and Habiba in April 2003
My apologies for not blogging for a couple of months, work has been non-stop and access to the internet is always an obstacle to a lot of us living in remote areas with few amenities. Contrary to conventional wisdom we are not all connected.
The big news is that on May 1st we witnessed the first elephant birth at the Dzanga Clearing in nineteen years. I had always suspected that birthing was a private affair and after what we witnessed in the clearing I now understand clearly why that is probably the case. The mother, Maureena, is well known to us and had been in the clearing for a couple of days preceding the birth. She is part of a big family group that was fragmented in 2001 when I think the matriarch of the group and her adult daughter were killed. They were regular visitors to the clearing and then they abruptly disappeared. Other members of the group which included juvenile and subadult females and males kept in contact and alerted me to the situation. The family remained as intact as it could and now several of the females have attained maturity and have their own calves.
On the day of the birth Maureena was seen opposite from where we do our observations, in a pool of water used by the elephants in the clearing. I didn’t see the actual birth but one of the tourists, a young Frenchman, said to me “That female just had a baby.” I immediately dismissed what he had said when I say Maureena standing over this tiny calve wrapped in a bundle of white skin which she was trying to pull away from the baby. I captured this behavior on video tape as Maureena pulled away the skin freeing the newborn. Maureena ate all of the tissue. The calf was lying there in the pool desperately trying to stand up without too much success. Then havoc happened with many of the surrounding elephants approaching the calf to touch and smell it and in some instances trying to help it to its feet. Poor Maureena had difficulty keeping contact with the calf with a continual approach of other females and young crowding and confusing the situation. One of the younger bulls who was obviously confused tried repeatedly to mate with Maureena and at one point mounted her and then fell falling on the newborn. No damage was done and I think that might have been due to the calf being in a very muddy area which cushioned the fall. The chaos continued and it piqued the interest of all the elephants in the clearing.
Then to my right I noticed the entrance of Maureen, another member of Maureena’s group. She entered the clearing from the south with her two young calves and headed directly to Maureena and the newborn. She helped protect the calf from the crowds and we could see the newborn under Maureen’s legs while the young bull pestered Maureena. Maureen was able to move the calf from the central saline to the edge of the bai since the calf was able to stand and move, this being about thirty minutes after the birth. It was then the end of our observations and we left concerned about the calf’s safety but content that Maureen was present with the newborn and seemed to be in control of all the interested elephants.
Before we witnessed this birth at Dzanga we had been seeing many very new calves of one to three days old, something I had never seen before. A copule of the females we had seen in the clearing without newborns had given birth and then one or two days later they would appear with the newborn. This happened at least five times during the period of early April and into May. It’s always a wonderful sight to see a female one knows with a new calf and when the calf is only a day old it is extraordinary especially when we didn’t even suspect she was pregnant.
I’ve included some photos of the newest additions to the Dzanga population. All of these calves are less than a week old. The center photo is of Medina II and that calf was a day old when the photo was taken.